Posts Tagged ‘2017’

Defining Recrutainment

By Oliver on July 10th, 2017 in conferences, gamification, publications

Korn, Oliver; Brenner, Florian; Börsig, Julian; Lalli, Fabio, Mattmüller, Maik & Müller, Andrea

Defining Recrutainment: A Model and a Survey on the Gamification of Recruiting and Human Resources

In: The Human Side of Service Engineering, pp. 37–49, Springer, Cham


Text on ResearchGate


Recrutainment, is a hybrid word combining recruiting and entertainment. It describes the combination of activities in human resources and gamification. Concepts and methods from game design are now used to assess and select future employees. Beyond this area, recrutainment is also applied for internal processes like professional development or even marketing campaigns. This paper’s contribution has four components:

  1. we provide a conceptual background, leading to a more precise definition of recrutainment;
  2. we develop a new model for analyzing solutions in recrutainment;
  3. we present a corpus of 42 applications and use the new model to assess their strengths and potentials;
  4. we provide a bird’s eye view on the state of the art in recrutainment and show the current weighting of gamification and recruiting aspects.


The work is presented on July 19 at AHFE ’17, the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics.


Zenware Applications

By Oliver on July 9th, 2017 in assistive technology, conferences, HCI, publications

Gerbaulet, Damian & Korn, Oliver

Do Zenware Applications Reduce the Digital Distraction of Knowledge Workers? A Qualitative Study Based on Expert Interviews

In: Advances in Ergonomics in Design, pp. 115–126, Springer, Cham


Text on ResearchGate


Applications helping us to maintain the focus on work are called “Zenware” (from concentration and Zen). While form factors, use cases and functionality vary, all these applications have a common goal: creating uninterrupted, focused attention on the task at hand. The rise of such tools exemplifies the users’ desire to control their attention within the context of omnipresent distraction. In expert interviews we investigate approaches in the context of attention-management at the workplace of knowledge workers. To gain a broad understanding, we use judgement sampling in interviews with experts from several disciplines. We especially explore how focus and flow can be stimulated. Our contribution has four components:

  1.  a brief overview on the state of the art,
  2. a presentation of the results,
  3. strategies for coping with digital distractions and design guidelines for future Zenware
  4. and an outlook on the overall potential in digital work environments.


The work is presented on July 20 at AHFE ’17, the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics.


Strategies for Playful Design when Gamifying Rehabilitation

Korn, Oliver; Tietz, Stefan:

Strategies for Playful Design when Gamifying Rehabilitation. A Study on User Experience

In: PETRA ’17 Proceedings of the 10h Int. Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017, pp. 209-214

DOI = [to be published]

Text on ResearchGate


Gamifying rehabilitation is an efficient way to improve motivation and exercise frequency. However, between flow theory, self-determination theory or Bartle’s player types there is much room for speculation regarding the mechanics required for successful gamification, which in turn leads to increased motivation. For our study, we selected a gamified solution for motion training (an exergame) where the playful design elements are extremely simple.

The contribution is three-fold: we show best practices from the state of the art, present a study analyzing the effects of simple gamification mechanics on a quantitative and on a qualitative level and discuss strategies for playful design in therapeutic movement games.


The paper has been presented on June 23 at PETRA ’17, the 10th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments.

Designing Authentic Emotions for Non-Human Characters

By Oliver on June 1st, 2017 in affective, games, gamification, KORION, publications

Korn, Oliver; Stamm, Lukas; Moeckel, Gerd:

Designing Authentic Emotions for Non-Human Characters. A Study Evaluating Virtual Affective Behavior

In: DIS 17 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Designing Interactive Systems Conference 2017


Text on ResearchGate


While human emotions have been researched for decades, designing authentic emotional behavior for non-human characters has received less attention. However, virtual behavior not only affects game design, but also allows creating authentic avatars or robotic companions.

After a discussion of methods to model and recognize emotions, we present three characters with a decreasing level of human features and describe how established design techniques can be adapted for such characters.

In a study, 220 participants assess these characters’ emotional behavior, focusing on the emotion “anger”. We want to determine how reliable users can recognize emotional behavior, if characters increasingly do not look and behave like humans. A secondary aim is determining if gender has an impact on the competence in emotion recognition.

The findings indicate that there is an area of insecure attribution of virtual affective behavior not distant but close to human behavior. We also found that at least for anger, men and women assess emotional behavior equally well.


The paper is presented on June 13 at the
ACM SIGCHI Designing Interactive Systems Conference 2017

Gamification in der Produktion – Anforderungen und Potenziale

Korn, Oliver; Vauderwangem, Oliver:

Gamification in der Produktion – Anforderungen und Potenziale

In: Henke, Michael & Kaczmarek, Sandra (Eds.): Gamification in der Logistik. Effektiv und spielend zu mehr Erfolg,  Huss, München, 50-77


Gamification, die spielerische Anreicherung von Tätigkeiten, erfreut sich zunehmender Beliebtheit. Insbesondere in den Bereichen Gesundheit (Exergames) oder Lernen (Serious Games, Edutainment) gibt es eine Vielzahl erfolgreicher Anwendungen. Weniger verbreitet ist Gamification dagegen bislang bei Arbeitsprozessen. Zwar gibt es erfolgreiche Ansätze im Bereich Dienstleistung und Service (z. B. bei Callcentern), der Bereich der industriellen Produktion wurde jedoch bis vor wenigen Jahren nicht adressiert.

Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick der Entwicklung von Gamification und zeigt den Stand der Technik. Wir leiten allgemeine Anforderungen für Gamification im Produktionsumfeld ab und stellen zwei neue Ansätze aus der aktuellen Forschung vor. Diese werden in einer Studie mit Trainern aus der Automobilbranche auf Akzeptanz untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine insgesamt positive Haltung zur Gamifizierung der Produktion und eine sehr hohe Akzeptanz insbesondere des Pyramiden-Designs.

A Very Short History of Dynamic and Procedural Content Generation

By Oliver on April 7th, 2017 in games, publications

Blatz, Michael; Korn, Oliver:

A Very Short History of Dynamic and Procedural Content Generation

In: Korn, Oliver; Lee, Newton (Eds.): Game Dynamics. Best Practices in Procedural and Dynamic Game Content Generation, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2017, 1-13

DOI = 10.1007/978-3-319-53088-8_1


This chapter portrays the historical and mathematical background of dynamic and procedural content generation (PCG). We portray and compare various PCG methods and analyze which mathematical approach is suited for typical applications in game design. In the next step, a structural overview of games applying PCG as well as types of PCG is presented. As abundant PCG content can be overwhelming, we discuss context-aware adaptation as a way to adapt the challenge to individual players’ requirements. Finally, we take a brief look at the future of PCG.

Book: Game Dynamics. Best Practices in Procedural and Dynamic Game Content Generation

By Oliver on April 5th, 2017 in games, HCI, publications

Korn, Oliver; Lee, Newton (Eds.):

Game Dynamics.
Best Practices in Procedural and Dynamic Game Content Generation

Springer Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-3-319-53087-1

DOI = 10.1007/978-3-319-53088-8

Text on ResearchGate | Text on SpringerLink


This book offers a compendium of best practices in game dynamics. It covers a wide range of dynamic game elements ranging from player behavior over artificial intelligence to procedural content generation. Such dynamics make virtual worlds more lively and realistic and they also create the potential for moments of amazement and surprise.

In many cases, game dynamics are driven by a combination of random seeds, player records and procedural algorithms. Games can even incorporate the player’s real-world behavior to create dynamic responses. The best practices illustrate how dynamic elements improve the user experience and increase the replay value.

The book draws upon interdisciplinary approaches; researchers and practitioners from Game Studies, Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction, Psychology and other disciplines will find this book to be an exceptional resource of both creative inspiration and hands-on process knowledge.

Designing a System for Playful Coached Learning in the STEM Curriculum

Korn, Oliver; Rees Adrian, Dix, Alan:

Educational Playgrounds: How Context-aware Systems Enable Playful Coached Learning

In: SmartLearn ’17 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Workshop on Intelligent Interfaces for Ubiquitous and Smart Learning, pp. 31-37

DOI = 10.1145/3038535.3038538

Text on ResearchGate


We present the design outline of a context-aware interactive system for smart learning in the STEM curriculum (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). It is based on a gameful design approach and enables “playful coached learning” (PCL): a learning process enriched by gamification but also close to the learner’s activities and emotional setting.

After a brief introduction on related work, we describe the technological setup, the integration of projected visual feedback and the use of object and motion recognition to interpret the learner’s actions. We explain how this combination enables rapid feedback and why this is particularly important for correct habit formation in practical skills training. In a second step, we discuss gamification methods and analyze which are best suited for the PCL system. Finally, emotion recognition, a major element of the final PCL design not yet implemented, is briefly outlined.


The paper was presented on March 13 at the SmartLearn ’17, a workshop within the ACM IUI 2017,
the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Intelligent User Interfaces Community